March 20, 2018

The Importance of Durand Line Recognition

By Sadaf Shinwari - Wed Oct 10 2012, 10:05 am

The recent attacks along the border region of Afghanistan and Pakistan, including a suicide bomb attack in Khost city, highlighted the pressing need for increased border management along the Durand Line. For over 100 years, successive Afghan governments have refused to formally recognize the Durand Line as Afghanistan’s international border with Pakistan.

While the relationship between Afghanistan and Pakistan has improved over the past years, a lack of trust still remains and the security situation on both sides of the Durand Line remains a great concern not only to both countries but also the international community. The rise of insurgent groups, illicit narcotic trade and vast poverty in the border regions can at least in part be attributed to the fact that no formal recognition of the border exists between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Formal recognition of the Durand Line would be a major step towards increasing trust building in the Afghanistan-Pakistan bilateral relationship. It would also represent a prerequisite of substantive improvement of the security situation in the border areas as well as better economic and social prospects for the people living on both sides of the Durand Line.

Today the Durand Line issue has been pushed aside on the priority list by Afghanistan and Pakistan as well as the international community. However, the fact remains that after nearly a decade of foreign forces fighting in Afghanistan the entity that still controls the Afghanistan–Pakistan border are the many extremist insurgent groups. Today the Afghan Taliban (Quetta Shura), al Qaeda, Pakistan Taliban (Tehrik – e- Taliban), Hizb-e-Islamic, Haqqani Network and many other insurgent groups continue to effortlessly cross the poorly managed unrecognized border.

The lack of communication and intelligence sharing along the border has contributed to the Pakistani military, Afghanistan National Army (ANA), and NATO’s ISAF composed of over 130, 000 troops from over 43 countries inability to prevent the insurgency from using the border to their strategic advantage.

Without any substantial border control between Afghanistan and Pakistan, illicit narcotics have also easily cross the Durand Line with very limited obstruction from border police on both sides. The United Nations Office of Drug and Crime (UNDOC), who estimates that around 40% of Afghan heroin crosses the Pakistan border, has stated that the perfect storm of drugs and terrorism has struck the Afghan/Pakistan border.

Despite drug smugglers and insurgents groups using the unrecognized border to their advantage, the international community continues to side step addressing the border recognition issue as they want to remain a neutral player between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Despite minor improvements to the border crossing at Torkham and Chaman, the international community’s border management initiatives along the Durand Line have achieved little progress in the last decade. These initiatives fail to address the root cause of the border management problem, which is that a clear formal recognized border is essential for establishing a framework towards managing the border.

The time has come for the international Community to support a border recognition process, where clear guidelines on intelligence sharing practices and border management can be facilitated. By failing to address the border recognition issue, the international community led by the United Nations has instead been forced to exert additional financial resources into their refugee, drug and developmental programs.

Border recognition would help enhance border management as it would lay down the necessary conditions in an agreement that would build trust, and increase collaboration on border security. In addition, border recognition would encourage Afghanistan and Pakistan to collaborate on joint training exercises and intelligence sharing that would ultimately give the border police more skills and incentives to stop people from illegally crossings.

A final settle on the border would not only benefit Pakistan but also Afghanistan as it would help ease their negative perceptions of Pakistan. The added support of the international community could help supply Kabul with the additional resource requirements severely lacking for better border management. This is reflected in the lack of coordination and overall effectiveness by the several Afghan ministries, such as the Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Interior who are in charge of border management.

While the finalization of the Durand Line as the official recognized border will not solve all bi-lateral problems, a comprehensible understanding of the Durand Line as the legal international border will increase harmonization of operations at all levels. A resolution could help lay the foundation for establishing a peaceful and brotherly environment between two Islamic countries with common history, ultimately leading to a more trusting relationship.

Brad L. Brasseur is an independent policy analyst with many years of experience on Afghanistan and Pakistan. Mr. Brasseur wrote his Masters dissertation on the Durand Line and is the author of the publication, Recognizing the Durand Line: A Way Way Forward for Afghanistan and Pakistan?

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  1. i believe this is an argument without any academic proof, Durand line has nothing to do with security of the countries. there is even bigger issue of border between India and Pakistan, while security is not a concern and to the same token the border issues between India and china, other land disputes between several countries. I find this article extremely biased and farfetched in the context of Afghanistan. Afghans should not allow such divisive propaganda in their publications whatsoever.

    1. Bulls-eye, I agree with you

      The irony of Afghanistan is that they are worst managers of their own country and the best support actors of the Super powers. In the past this mentality was supported by USSR and now USA. If they put half of that in national building rather than scratching settled issues, Afghanistan would be prosperous country and the Taliban never existed.


  2. This is very naive thinking that simply recognizing the Durand Line as the international border will help stop the insurgent activity and border crossings. Although the Durand line currently has not been recognized as official international border by Afghanistan, it has been treated as a border. Thousands of soldiers on both sides have access to the border areas and guard the border.

    The reality is that the length of and terrain of the “border” is enormous and extremely difficult due to being mountainous. This means that to protect the border it will require hundreds of thousands of soldiers which the two countries don’t have.

    The author needs to be more specific in how the border will be better protected as well as improve the situation of people on both sides if it is recognized.

    The economic and development situation on the border does not depend on simply recognizing the border, it depends on investing money, creating more job opportunity and especially more civilian involvement by the governor.

    It has become a safe haven for all sorts of fighters because of foreign involvement in Afghanistan especially Pakistan who wants to control what Afghanistan does. Pakistani Taliban or TTP is a group that was funded by Pakistan against the Afghan government and US forces. Now the TTP are turning their weapons on Pakistan because they have seen the hypocrisy of Pakistan for supporting US.

    1. very true pakistan is a true state sponser of terrorism who is the ultimate originator and creator of terrorist organisations.. their intelligence agency itself is involved in nefarious acts that affect peace and stability in the region.

      india supports afghan development and democracy , and indians on whole have a very favourable opinion of afghanistan ,south asia’s gateway to central asia. ,,but recent reports of afghan president tilting towards pakistan is worrying. no doubt its all afghanistan’s internal and bilateral issue and we have no say but its best he takes decision cautiously…..which i think he will…..

  3. The northern alliance govt. backed by USA, along with Punjabistan will not seperate Pashtuns by a border that was imposed by our enemy at the time, Great Britain. Who is who to talk about border in Pashtun areas?, only the Pashtun can decide how to treat the border. From Zahir Shah to Taliban, no one recognized or signed the border. This article is one I would see in a Paki newspaper, not in so called “Afghan” website. Unless it’s ethnic rivalry at work.

    1. If you are a real Pashtun why have used Adam??? you cant represent your self don’t use big words while it doesn’t suit your mouth boy!

    2. u r so right…

  4. This is pure propaganda.. situation has nothing to do with the border. How a border can be recognized if it is set unilateral by former British India who had not the right to give the land to PAK while creating it. Agreement was done with British India and not Pakistan since it didnt extist at that time. When British India was defeated , so was the agreement null and void. (regardless of arguing about 100 years clause in which the land had to be given back in 1993 to Afghanistan). Whatever border would be there, there always would be WAR going on since certain interests wont just stop after recognizing it.. OMG!

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