According to reports, the incident took place in Nasir Bagh Road and the Taliban leader has been identified as Qari Syed Murad.
The gunmen reportedly opened fire on Qari Murad near his residence in Nasir Bagh Road where he was also running a seminary.
Qari Murad was a member of the military commission of the Taliban group for eastern Nangarhar province of Afghanistan.
The Taliban militants group has not commented regarding the incident so far.
This comes as another senior leader of the Taliban group Mawlavi Alam was shot dead by unknown gunmen near Quetta city of Pakistan earlier this year.
Mawlawi Alam was a senior leader of the Taliban group and was a loyal commander to the newly-appointed Taliban supreme leader Mullah Akhtar Mansoor.
The leadership of the Taliban group and the notorious Haqqani terrorist network are believed to be based in Pesawar and Quetta cities of Pakistan.
The Afghan officials have long been criticizing Pakistan for allowing the Taliban and Haqqani network to use its soil from where they plan and coordinate attacks in Afghanistan.