The provincial government media office in a statement said the incident took place at around 9:30am local time, targeting the vehicle of Durbaba district governor Hamisha Gul Muslim and police chief Nawab Khan.
The statement further added that the explosion was triggered by an improvised explosive planted on a roadside, leaving the two senior officials slightly wounded.
According to the provincial government, the incident took place as the two officials were patrolling the area.
Both the district governor and police chief have been shifted to hospital and are undergoing treatment, the statement by the provincial government added.
No individual or group has so far claimed responsibility behind the incident.
Nangarhar has been among the relatively calm provinces since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001 but the anti-government armed militants have been attempting to expand their foothold in this province during the recent years.
However, the Afghan armed forces are busy conducting counter-terrorism operations to suppress the militant groups.