In the Afghan context, it is culturally embedded that everyone is capable of doing everything with a high level of resiliency and persistence. Therefore, this notion provides a strong collective efficacy among the members of the society and the collective efficacy provides a ground for individual efficacy.

According to Leithwood (2019a) “Efficacy beliefs determine how much risk people will take, how much effort they will expend, and how long they will persist in the face of failure or difficulty. The stronger the self-efficacy the longer the persistence” (p. 40).

Afghan people are known for their resiliency and persistence which is backed by collective and individual efficacy. Over the course of its history, especially in its contemporary history, Afghan people faced numerous challenges and yet persist with resiliency in the face of difficulty.

And now the people of Afghanistan are trying to come out of the miseries of war and conflict and align its social, economic, and educational standards with the rest of the world to become a prosperous country again.

On January 6, 2020, the Afghan MoE hosts a 3 days symposium with the objective of redefining structures and responsibilities of Afghan MoE, which will be discussed accordingly:

  1. Redefinition of the main and supportive responsibilities of MoE based on regional and international standards to enhance the quality of education and improve learning outcome
  2. Definition of educational services provision model of MoE
  3. Provision of quality educational services based on regional and international standards
  4. Balancing the responsibilities between MoE, provincial, district, and school’s leadership to enhance the efficiency of educational services, and
  5. Provision of a logical and result-oriented plan at the central and provincial levels.

The objectives are discussed in greater details of:

  1. Familiarization with the redefinition of Afghan MoE roles and responsibilities
  2. Redefinition of job descriptions at school, district, provincial, and central level
  3. Redistribution of decision-making power from the ministry of education to provincial, districts, and school-level leadership
  4. Determination of the leadership, policy, and monitoring role of Afghan MoE
  5. A renewed organogram from MoE to school level
  6. The position of the religious education within Afghan MoE
  7. The position of literacy programs within Afghan MoE
  8. The position of teacher’s education, their promotion to the bachelor level in the employment structure
  9. Publication and distribution of textbooks to schools, j) the curriculum development and evaluation at the Afghan MoE 

This is the first time in the history to Afghanistan that the school principals will be given greater leadership power. A distributed leadership approach in the education system in Afghanistan was long overdue.

The Ministry of education with its national and international partners are collaborating to achieve this goal. In OECD countries, the People Republic of China, the Republic of Singapore, and Hong Kong are top-performing countries.

They are using a framework called Instructional leadership framework that is contextualized within their respective contexts. This framework provides greater leadership power for school principals that facilitates teachers’ instructional approaches to enhance student learning outcomes.

This symposium and discussions regarding reforms will boost Afghan school principals, vice-principals headteachers, and teacher’s moral to enhance their individual and collective efficacy to persist in the face of new challenges and enhance the quality of teaching and learning to achieve student learning outcome.

We can learn from the international frameworks to enhance our school principal’s leadership practices to achieve student learning outcomes compatible with the rest of the world.

This three-day symposium is a start for improvement of schools’ standards that aligns with the rest of the world.


  • Mustafa Ramazan Habibi

    Mustafa Ramazan Habibi comes from Afghanistan and completed his undergraduate studies at Kabul University in 2012 in the field of education. He subsequently got his master’s degree, M.Ed in education from the Aga Khan University (AKU) Karachi Pakistan after admission through a merit-based and highly competitive selection process. His area of expertise is Educational Leadership and Policy in Education. He now pursues his doctoral studies, Ph.D. in Education at McGill University.